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Convergence Insufficiency Bibliography  
A chronological list of some of the key contributions to the field of the management convergence insufficiency.
Handout - American Academy of Optometry Joint Symposium 2016  
AAO Scheiman Concussion course Handout  
Non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency (Review)  
Systematic reviews are considered the highest level of evidence about clinical treatments. They review the literature by using explicit, rigorous, and reproducible methods to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize the best evidence from all clinical trials to answer clearly defined clinical questions. This systematic review of treatments for convergence insufficiency was published in March 2011 in the Cochrane Collaboration which is an international not-for-profit organization created to improve the user-friendliness and accessibility of medical literature mainly through preparing and maintaining systematic reviews of health-care interventions. This review concludes that Current research suggests that office-based vision therapy/orthoptics is more effective than home-based pencil push-ups or home-based computer vision therapy/orthoptics for children.
A Survey of Treatment Modalities for Convergence Insufficiency  
Surveys requesting doctors to indicate which treatment(s) they prescribed and believed to be most effective for symptomatic CI patients were mailed to 863 optometrists and 863 ophthalmologists in the United States.
2005: Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Convergence Insufficiency in Children  
This pilot study was the first randomized clinical trial of vision therapy for convergence insufficiency. The objective was to compare office-based vision therapy, home-based pencil push-ups, and office-based placebo vision therapy as treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children 9 to 18 years of age. The results of the study showed that only office-based vision therapy was an effective treatment for convergence insufficiency. Home-based pencil push-ups was no more effective than placebo treatment.,
2008: Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Convergence Insufficiency  
Behavioral and Emotional Problems Associated With CI: An open Trial  
This study investigated behavioral and emotional characteristics of children with convergence insufficiency (CI), before and after treatment with office-based vergence accommodative therapy (OBVAT). Method: Parents of 44 children ages 9 to 17 years with symptomatic CI completed the Conners 3 ADHD Index and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) before and after OBVAT. Pre-treatment scores were compared with normative data and post-treatment scores were compared with baseline using the Wilcoxon sign rank test. Results: Following OBVAT, CI children showed a significant mean improvement (p < .0001, effect size of 0.58) on the Conners 3 ADHD Index with the largest changes occurring in the 23 children who scored the highest at baseline. On the CBCL, anxious/depressed, somatic, and internalizing problems improved significantly (p < .001, effect sizes of -0.36, -1.15, and -0.67, respectively). Conclusion: In an open trial, attention and internalizing problems improved significantly following treatment for CI
Treatment of Accommodative Dysfunction in Children: Results from a Randomized Cl  
The purpose of this paper is to report the effectiveness of various forms of vision therapy/orthoptics in improving accommodative amplitude and facility in children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) and co-existing accommodative dysfunction. The authors conclude that vision therapy is effective in improving accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility in school-aged children with symptomatic CI and accommodative dysfunction.
Evidence-Based Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency  
Chicago Tribune: Report on CITT Study 2008  
National Eye Institute Release CITT Study 2008  
Review of Optometry Question and Answer CITT 2008  
Phillyburbs Report on CITT 2008  
My Fox Philly Report on CITT 2008  
Associated Press Report on CITT 2008  
Randomized Trial of Base-in Reading Glasses for CI in Children  
College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD) Press Release CITT 2008   
Effectiveness of Vision Therapy in Young Adults  
This study showed that office-based vision therapy is more effective than home-based pencil push-ups for young adults. Pencil push-up treatment was no more effective than placebo therapy.
American Optometric Association News - Results of CITT Study  
The American Optometric Association News reviews the result of the CITT study showing that office-based vision therapy is more effective than home-based therapy.
Vision Therapy/Orthoptics for Symptomatic CI in Children: Treatment Kinetics  
The rate of improvement is more rapid for clinical measurements than for symptoms in children undergoing treatment for CI. Office-based vision therapy results in a more rapid improvement in symptoms, and clinical measures, and a greater percentage of patients reaching pre-determined criteria of success when compared with home-based pencil push-ips, home-based computer therapy or placebo therapy. (Optom Vis Sci 2010;87:593–603)
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